Friday, December 30, 2011

MBA after engineering

Engineering and MBA

Have you completed your engineering degree or will be appearing for your final year exam? Have you decided what to do next? Do you wish to study further, take up a job or a do MBA? Well these are some of the question that you must be facing now or will be facing soon.

This article will take you through all the important issues you need to think before making your decision of whether and when to obtain your MBA.

The most important question that most of you are facing is whether MBA a must after engineering? Today we see that 70-80% of the students appearing for the Common Admission Test (CAT) exam are engineers and in most of the cases it is not even a well thought decision but an act of going with the flow. Today, MBA has carved a niche for itself today in almost all the professions of the world. Doing MBA entirely depends upon individuals their priorities in life. Ideally speaking it is always good to have master’s degree because a single degree in today’s time of tough competitions is not enough. Before choosing MBA as a career you should do an analysis that whether it is the career for you or not? You can start by asking yourself questions like:
  • Do you have the traits of leadership?
  • Are you a team player?
  • Do you have good communication skills?
  • Do you have the ability to do multitasking independently?
  • Do you have convincing powers?

If the answer to these questions is an emphatic ‘YES’, then MBA is definitely the career for you.

Study OR Work?

You can start by considering the vital question – ‘Should you opt to study or work?’ Again if you are interested in studies and are financially well off with no responsibilities then sure you can complete your studies. If the answer is YES, then the next obvious thing is to decide whether to stick to your engineering stream, do MBA or look for other career options.

If you choose to stick to your technical field then you can do you post graduation (MTech/Msc. Engineering or Master of Science), develop your skills and then start working. Again as discussed above if you are financially sound then you can also choose to go abroad for your master’s degree. Obviously, after doing your masters from abroad your chances in the job market will be brighter both career wise and financially. But if your answer is ‘No’ then there many other options available to look out for and one of the most obvious choice is doing MBA.

What is MBA?


It's a Master of Business Administration degree, granted after one to two years of graduate-level university study that provides education in the theory and practice of business management. The MBA degree is basically a document that certifies that you have a general competency in all the major functional management roles you'll find in the modern organization. An MBA is a career accelerator across a number of industries and MBA graduates usually start with higher salaries.

Why MBA?

What does an MBA provide? Is it just a degree that will help you get a promotion, a chance to fly high in your career, or help you add some extra bucks in your pocket? An MBA degree is much more than that. Besides, giving you a degree that will help you add an extra column to your CV, an MBA helps you build on your skills, develop your brand and network. An MBA degree goes beyond classroom learning. Soft skills like teamwork, ethics, communication and leadership that an MBA teaches you helps you not only in your career but also leads to a holistic development. An MBA degree also helps you build a strong network with the elite alumni, faculty and community and industry people.

An MBA will surely help you analyze the balance sheet, solve complicated problems, and help you research and explore new opportunities for your company but at the backdrop an MBA provides something deeper, something life-altering. An MBA is not just Management in Business Administration but as much a business event as well.

When to join MBA?

One of the most important questions is whether to join MBA immediately after engineering or to work and then join. Well, some of the major institutes do prefer people with some work experience and many of the courses during the MBA program revolve around concepts and principles that one would get exposed to only at work. In such cases work experience becomes the distinguishing factor. The ability of the person with some work experience to interact, discuss and handle a particular situation will always have a more practical approach than a fresher.

It is significant that engineers widen their knowledge and skills in the management area if they wish to become senior managers in an organization. Having already obtained a technical degree, an MBA expands the horizon of their education in the wider areas of management. The role of the engineer is changing rapidly within an industrial organization. The engineer is likely to be the manager that has to implement new practices and new technology.

MBA gives you the confidence to pursue your dreams and gives you a force to innovate and experiment. A management degree polishes your managerial skills making you to work towards the goal of the application with greater productivity and lesser cost. The course makes you acquainted with all the aspects of running a company. It grooms the person to serve the best to oneself – only then can he be an asset to an organization.

MBA course prepares you to face the realities of life while you are still in the process of shaping your dreams. The management course gives you a chance to figure out your strengths, weaknesses, passions and harness them.

Types of MBA


MBA courses had always been full time courses, but in the last few years there has been an introduction of many types of MBA programs based on their structure. So now there are part time MBA courses, modular programs, international programs, distance learning programs, and even online MBA programs.
Many schools offer MBA programs along with other academic majors, and some focus only on business degrees.

Choose the MBA Program you want:
  • Two-Year, Full-Time MBA
  • One-Year, Full-Time MBA
  • Part-Time MBA
  • Executive MBA
Major Streams of MBA
  • Information Technology
  • Human Resource
  • Sales
  • Marketing
  • Finance
  • Systems
  • Operations

The above mentioned are few of the major streams but there are many other streams (For more you can visit our section on streams of management).

Other career options

Now after going through the article you still might feel that the above mentioned careers are not for you then don’t be disappointed you still have choices to choose from such as administrative services (IAS/IES), GMAT etc.

IAS/IES: Even though corporate jobs may offer the best of salaries and perks, a majority of engineers and their parents still crave for entry to the prestigious Indian Civil Services held by the UPSC. The very fact that a big share of every year's top posts in the civil services exams are bagged by engineering professionals from various streams, shows that IAS still remains the dream.

Consultancy Service: You can complete higher studies, and if you are a civil engineer, computer engineer or architect, you can become a consultant and have your own consultancy firm. If you thought it is only MBA which can fetch you big bucks, then think again!

Journalist/Technical writer: Have you ever thought that you can become a technical writer and earn a lot by simply having an engineering degree. You can become a technical writer and create technical manuals for corporate giants and see how you rise up the ladder in a couple of years. Your technical background will help you get an edge over your non-technical colleagues. You can also write for IT section of any leading newspaper. There are many takers for IT news today and the trend is going to increase in the coming years. There are dedicated technical magazines where you can contribute as well. So go ahead and become a writer and get instant respect and recognition in the industry.

Military service: Engineers are in great demand in our armed forces be it the Army, Navy or Air force. Be a proud Indian and enjoy the life of an Indian military.

Final Words

Whatever you choose, don't jump onto an MBA program without doing all the necessary introspection and research.

Monday, December 26, 2011

Marine Engineering


Marine Engineering

Marine engineering is a branch of Engineering that deals with nautical architecture and science. The term 'Marine Engineering' is meant for research conducted in oceans and coastal or inland waters connected to the sea. Marine Engineering courses deal with construction and maintenance of ships and other sailing vessels. The three professions, i.e Naval Architecture, Marine Engineering and Ocean Engineering are interrelated and sometimes may be confusing. Naval Architects are those who are involved with basic ship design, starting with hull forms and overall arrangements, power requirements, structure and stability. Ocean Engineers study the ocean environment to determine its effects on ships and other marine vehicles and structures. They may design and operate stationary ocean platforms, or manned or remote-operated sub-surface vehicles used for deep sea exploration.
Marine Engineers have the complete responsibility of the ship's technical management. They are responsible for selecting the ships' machinery, which may include diesel engines, steam turbines, gas turbines; and for the design of mechanical, electrical, fluid and control systems throughout the vessel. They are the members of a ship's crew who are in charge for managing a team of marine technicians and craftspeople. The construction, operations and maintenance of the engine room are the main obligation of a Marine engineer. That means the Marine engineer deals with the technical area of the ship. In fact, they are the overall in charge of the engine and its crew, and ensure the safety and standards of the marine body. The role of Marine Engineers has widened and smoothened with modern development and electronic navigation.
A four year BE in Marine Engineering is the basic educational qualification needed to become a Marine engineer. This is a career that offers vast job opportunities including off-shore jobs and the most attractive part is its huge remuneration and NRI status. Many Indian and foreign institutes offer courses in Marine Engineering. Immense job opportunities are awaiting for Marine engineers and they have nearly 100% placement rates. The demand for Marine Engineers in public and private shipping companies has risen sharply, with the increase in international global sea traffic.Those interested in pursuing a career in marine engineering must weigh the advantages and disadvantages carefully. The major advantage of becoming a marine engineer is that students entering careers in marine engineering have nearly 100% placement rates because the demand for them is always so great, says Daniel Jones, dean of student services at Maine Maritime Academy . And for those who are particular about where they want to reside, a seaside job can give you this option: "You can live anywhere you want in the United States since most companies will fly you to your job site," says Jones. However, your company won't do this every day of the week because marine engineers are likely on board a ship or oil rig for several months at a time. Jones also notes the flexibility of the career. He says, "In a down cycle [in marine engineering], engineers are able to move to other parts of the industry."

Eligibility : BE in Marine Engineering / Nautical Science and PG Diploma in Mechanical Engineering are the basic qualifications to become a Marine Engineer. The minimum educational qualifications

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Petroleum Engineering


Petroleum engineering is an engineering discipline related to the activities under the surface in connection with the production of hydrocarbons, which can be crude oil or natural gas. These activities are considered within the upstream sector of oil and gas, that are include exploration for hydrocarbons. Petroleum engineeringrequires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation (well logging), drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, well engineering, artificial lift systems and oil and gas facilities engineering. In other words, the scope of petroleum engineering includes exploration of hydrocarbons, reservoir studies, drilling and well completion, operations and production of oil and gas (onshore and / or offshore) and their transportation. One should be very clear that petroleum refining is not petroleum engineering. Most of active students in UK, USA and India said they took up the petroleum engineering because they loves the physical as well as the technical challenges of the job. No other industry fulfils this criteria and they didn't want to become a couch potato, sitting in front of a computer in some offices, the whole day. Petroleum engineering is about looking at the entire hydrocarbon (which can be either crude oil or natural gas) value chain. It, however, focuses more on upstream operations of the oil and gas industry, i.e. drilling, production, transportation and reservoir engineering.
Petroleum Engineers search the world for reservoirs containingoil and natural gas. On discovery of these resources they word with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, determine the drilling methods to be uses, and monitor drilling and production operations. Petroleum Engineers design equipment and processes to achieve maximum and profitable recovery of oil and gas. They rely heavily on computer models to simulate reservoir performance using different recovery techniques.
Petroleum engineering broadly consists of different areas called drilling, reservoir and production stream. Drilling deals with "placing a well to tap the pay zone and depending on its purpose, it may be used for analysing the hydrocarbon pool, its development for producing oil / gas,". Reservoir engineering deals with study of the pool and work out ways to exploit it. Production engineering comes into play after the reservoir has been understood and wells have been driled and the hydrocarbon begins to flow. "It deals with the study of optimising well performance through a suitable completion and production strategy. Production engineers are responsible for flow of well fluid through surface facilities, its subsequent separation into phases like oil, gas and water and bringing it to a quality acceptable by the refineries.

Jobs and Skills in Petroleum Engineering

The importance of petroleum in our day-to-day life and the increasing demand supply gap in the energy sector it can be said that there is a big demand of petroleum engineers, which is likely to grow. Jobs related to data processing and interpretations are done with the help of state-of-the-art software running on sophisticated hardware. Drilling involves dealing with subsurface conditions of pressures and temperatures and rquires high skill with machinery and related judgements. Production operations in petroleum engineering require people who love action and have a knack for keeping the operations smooth and running in the face of several challenges. The scope for petroleum engineers is very expansive. There is a constant challenge to ring up the recovery factor from the producing fields and even more pressure on discovering new reserves. All this is a translating into a high demand for professionals in the petroleum engineering sector.
At the entry level jobs of petroleum engineers, one may get anything between Rs. 3 lakh to Rs. 8 lakh a year. A petroleum engineer normally works in harsh conditions in remote areas such as offshore drilling sites, hence is compensated well. Petroleum Engineer salary is at least 1.5 times more that that of his conterparts in other core sectors. Engineers with added skills ear two-three times as much and career advancement is very fast.

Petroleum Engineering Universities & Institutes

If you want a degree in petroleum engineering and become a petroleum engineer than you must need a goodpetroluem engineering university to do that. We are mentioned below some good universities and institutes who provide the petroleum engineering degree.
  • Indian School of Mines (ISM)Dhandabad
  • Oandit Deendayal Petroleum Unversity (PDPU) Gandhinagar
  • MIT Pune
  • University of Petroleum and Energy Studies - Dehradun
  • Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology - Rai Barei

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Diploma In Advanced Computing

Diploma In Advanced Computing

About

The Post Graduate Diploma in Advanced Computing (DAC) is the flagship programme of ACTS. The course is targeted towards engineers and IT professionals who wish to venture into the domain of advanced computing. The course aims to groom the students to enable them to work on current technology scenarios as well as prepare them to keep pace with the changing face of technology and the requirements of the growing IT industry. The course curriculum has been designed keeping in view the emerging trends in advanced computing as well as contemporary and futuristic human resource requirements of the ICT industry. The entire course syllabus, courseware, teaching methodology and the course delivery have been derived from the rich research and development background of C-DAC. The depth and width of the course is unique in the industry covering a wide spectrum of requirements of the ICT industry. Running successfully for more than ten years, the DAC course has yielded thousands of students, who are well positioned in the industry today.

 24 weeks full-time Post-Graduate Diploma Programs
Ten Modules followed by a project
Evaluation at the mid and end of the course
Curriculum designed in consultation with industry experts,
Courseware designed with leading publishers.
Well-equipped laboratory and can be accessed 24 hours.
Well-equipped library.
Support for International Certification Exams.
Extensive hands on sessions
Live exercises relevant to the standards of industry.
Limited Internet access
100+ hrs for soft skills
Assistance for hostel accommodation
Placement assistance
Centralized examination system.
Corporate / industry interaction
Best student award. 

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Career in Online Security



Career in Online Security
The recent report of NASSCOM says that there is a demand for two lakh information security professionals worldwide. As netizens, our lives stand exposed to the innumerable mishaps of the cyber world. For those who have a special place in their heart for computer science along with a knack of understanding the space of internet beyond the obvious, a career as an online security analyst could well be the ideal way to turn your passion into a fruitful career.
WHAT IS THE JOB?

The comfort of technology comes with the threat of criminal hackers who misuse confidential data available on the web. Online security analysts hack with legal permission to strengthen systems and make the system penetration proof. “An online security analyst is responsible for protecting all sensitive information within a company. They are responsible for insuring all networks have adequate security firewalls to prevent unauthorised access and must develop reports to share with administrators and stake holders in a company about the efficiency of security policies and recommend changes. Analysts also ensure that security systems are updated with any software or hardware changes in the company along with documenting security information in the company including physical and internet security,” explains Dr Zaki Qureshi, founder and chairman, E2labs Information Security, India’s first anti-hacking company. An online security analyst should understand the working of different protocols and services and should give viable solutions in case of security breaches.

Also, in the recent years, there has been an alarming increase in the number of email frauds and other cyber crime cases. In such a scenario, the demand for online security analysts has seen an unprecedented rise. Ankit Fadia, an independent computer security consultant says, “Online security analysts are ethical hackers. They are hired by leading companies, especially banking institutions, to secure their website as well as online transactions. Today, companies commonly employ a dedicated team of online security analysts who avert cyber crime on a daily basis.”
HOW DO I BECOME AN ANALYST?

In spite of the growing demand for professionals skilled in ethical hacking, there are only a few recognised institutes which offer complete training in ethical hacking. While a background in computer science is preferred, certifications are available which act as an advantage and provide an entry into the online security industry. Certifications help a person to understand the technical aspect along with training to deal with security breaches. Asian School of Cyber Law offers courses in cyber law and security. Month-long hacking courses like those conducted by Ankit Fadia Certified Ethical Hacker are available in more than 100 cities across India. You can also pursue a year-long PG Diploma course in Cyber Security and a two-year masters’ degree in cyber law and cyber security offered by IMT Ghaziabad. Some of the most well-known certifications are offered by the International Council of E-commerce. The certified ethical hacker is a certificate course offered by the organisation covering a basic area of ethical hacking and students can avail this programme in several study centers in Asia. 

While being computer savvy and gadget friendly are important pre-requisites, keen interest in networking and continuously updating programming skills are essential in this field. “While education in this field is an advantage, the most important skill required to be a successful online analyst is to have an insatiable passion for the newest developments in the field of computers and the ability to think like a criminal,” stresses Fadia.
WHAT IS THE INDUSTRY LIKE?

While there is no hard and fast rule to become a security analyst, training in ethical hacking along with programming knowledge is a good way to make an entry into the industry. Assessing risks, creation of high complexity security plans and the ability to defend the systems from dangerous attacks are some of the high points of this career. “An online security analyst’s job is more interesting than that of a regular programmer. It is almost like solving a mystery and a regular day at work involves hacking into the company’s website, finding out the security loopholes and developing programmes to fix it,” informs Gitesh Suchak, practice lead, Liquidhub, Hyderabad. Suchak’s opinion is echoed by Shyamoli Chattopadhay who has worked as a network administrator with Infosys. Says Chattopadhay, “The best part of the job is the delight of being a step ahead of the thief’s mind.” Due to the demand in this industry, starting salary ranges between four to six lakh per annum and experienced professionals can earn a salary of 30 to 40 lakh per annum.

So if you are looking to pursue something more exciting than programming and look forward to new challenges daily, you may want to consider becoming an online security analyst.  

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Software that identifies right career for your child

A new approach

It can identify the right career for your child, tell you when he's mischievously missing from the class and message you his test scores as soon as he's been handed the answer sheet. A software developed by three IT professionals promises to change the teacher, students, parents dynamics in Kerala.

Called Edualert, the software has been developed by US-based Keralites Akbar Narendran and Sanjay Nair, and Rajiv Viswanath who is based here.
"Edualert can give suggestions to a student and his parents as to which career suits him best based on his academic performance," 33-year-old Narendran told IANS on a visit to Kerala to promote the software.

The modus operandi goes something like this. Details of a child's entire academic history, his interests and extra curricular activities right from the first grade is fed into the software. "Through an analysis, it would reveal which is the best career option for the student," Narendran said.

Edualert operations manager Ramakrishnan said the thinking of parents in the state for long has been that there are only two good professions -- engineering and medicine.
"We have observed that many children for fear of earning the wrath of their parents unwillingly opt for either of the two most sought after professions," said Ramakrishnan.
The basic version of Edualert is free for schools. Around 10 schools in the state have already given the nod to this unique product.

"In January, we will come again because we have got numerous enquiries from schools in some metros and Tier II cities. We will first do a demonstration of our product in front of teachers and parents," said Narendran.

The software with add-ons version comes fairly cheap and it will cost 10 percent of the annual fee of a student, said Narendran.

"It includes a centralised process of taking attendance which takes only a few minutes. When done, an SMS will be sent to the parents of all those students who are absent. Likewise, the moment corrected answer papers are distributed, parents will get an SMS about how their child has performed," said Narendran.

Another interesting feature is that the moment the child enters the school bus, he will be monitored and in case there is a traffic jam, an SMS alert will go to the parents.
"It took us two years to fully develop it as we did it in our spare time. We are now working on some other add-ons," said Narendran.

Krishnamurthy Iyer, principal of the ARR Public School, predicts the "revolutionary" software to be a huge hit in the education sector. "We installed it just two weeks back and from the first look, it's something unique. It is certainly going to improve the quality of students, parents and teachers. All the information on children and their progress would be available at a click of a mouse," said Iyer.

However, a Class 12 student had different views on the subject.

"In many homes, the relation between parents and children is friendly. The software wouldn't bother those kids. But overall, parents would always like to know what their ward is doing which is a little scary," said the student, before saying that since his schooling was almost over, he had escaped.

However, a mother of a Class 10 student said: "Children need not be worried because this is a tool for their own betterment and for their good future. Just look into the positives and not the negative aspect that it will track children," she said.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

What Do Mechanical Engineers Do


What Do Mechanical Engineers Do

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“Scientists dream about doing great things. Engineers do them.”

-James A. Michener
Engineers solve complex problems for society. Mechanical engineers create and build mechanical devices. They apply the fundamentals of science and math to create practical, useful solutions that the rest of us can use.
The diverse mechanical engineering field can be divided in a variety of ways in terms of job functions. Some of the most common functions relate to these areas of technology, but not all do. Among these fields are:
  • Product Design -- developing products ranging from biomedical devices to gasoline-powered engines. A mechanical engineer designs anything that uses mechanical motion.
  • Research and Development -- discovering new solutions to human needs or improving older methods.
  • Manufacturing -- developing the machines that process materials into products. Designing and building machines and systems of machines that improve operating efficiency is of prime importance.
  • Systems management -- overseeing operations of a large system, such as a power plant, as well as supervising the people who work there.
  • Energy -- planning how energy is generated, stored, and moved. Industries that produce and deliver electrical power, such as natural gas, oil and alternative energy, employ mechanical engineers to develop more fuel-efficient cars, motors, and appliances.
In most of these fields, the mechanical engineer is concerned with heat utilization or machine design--in other words, harnessing or creating energy. Heat utilization techniques are applied in boilers, air conditioners, and refrigeration units. Machine design is more focused on hardware, including automobile engines, computers, and washing machines.

Trends in Mechanical Engineering Careers


Trends in Mechanical Engineering Careers

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), mechanical engineers hold over 222,000 jobs, more than half of which are in manufacturing: machinery, transportation equipment, computer and electronic products, and fabricated metal products manufacturing industries. The BLS predicts an increase of nearly 10,000 mechanical engineering jobs by 2016.
The median annual salary for a mechanical engineer is slightly over $75,000, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2007. Starting salaries average about $50,000+ per year, and top-tier engineers can earn over $100,000 annually.
Remember, these are just estimates. Your salary will depend on a number of factors as well as the current state of the economy.

Career options for aspiring mechanical engineers
Practically every company that designs and produces a product employs a mechanical engineer. But mechanical engineers can also be found in research labs, the military, government, and in other professions such as medicine, law or teaching.

Most mechanical engineering jobs require design experience. When a need comes about for a new or improved product, companies call upon mechanical engineers to do the job. Engineers have to push beyond the limits of their previous work and use innovative technology to meet project requirements successfully.

A second major area of employment for mechanical engineers is manufacturing. Manufacturing jobs cover nearly everything involved in developing a product, from selecting the appropriate materials to choosing the correct machinery to manufacture the product. Most mechanical engineers in this industry work for equipment manufacturers, aerospace companies, utilities, material processing plants, transportation companies, and petroleum companies. They also work with small firms, consulting practices, universities, and government research labs.

Specific assignments might involve research and development, design of equipment or systems, supervision of production, plant engineering, administration, sales engineering, the testing and evaluation of machines and entire plants. Some mechanical engineering titles and their functions include:
  • Automotive engineer: Mechanical engineers design many car parts for the automobile industry. As an automotive engineer, you could solve transportation and safety problems by creating better and more efficient engines or by developing improved safety features
  • Biomedical engineer: Mechanical engineers work with a variety of medical professionals to design mobility aids, prosthetics, and artificial organs.
  • Consulting: Once mechanical engineers have gained significant on-the-job experience and developed a high level of expertise, they might choose to work for themselves as consultants or independent contractors. Here they can work on projects of their choosing for clients they respect. The consulting field offers opportunities in large and small engineering service firms and in private practice.
  • Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) engineer: In this field, engineers design refrigeration systems for making frozen foods, or air-conditioning and heating systems for businesses and industrial buildings, residential homes, autos, hospitals, and schools.
  • Nuclear engineer: The design of nuclear power plants requires the services of a mechanical engineer. The engineer must understand the fundamentals of nuclear design, know how to operate the plant efficiently, and evaluate the environmental factors associated with nuclear plants.
  • Robotics engineer: A mechanical engineer may design machines that build other machines. For instance, a robotics engineer may be involved with creating the devices that are used in assembling automobiles. Engineers are concerned with the robot's structure, its joint mechanisms, bearings, and heat transfer characteristics.
  • Teaching: A desire to help mold the next generation of engineers motivates some mechanical engineers to move into academic careers. Engineers in colleges oversee research activities, manage laboratories, and mentor students. They also write and publish books and technical papers about mechanical engineering.
Mechanical engineers can find employment at virtually any institute where innovation takes place. They commonly work in the government, research, industry, military, teaching, management or consulting sectors.

The government agencies that typically hire mechanical engineers include the U.S. Navy, Patent and Trademark Office, International Trade Commission, Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Energy and even the U.S. Postal Service.

From developing toys to prosthetic legs, the types of projects you can be a part of are as vast as your imagination. With a degree in mechanical engineering, diversity is the key. You can wind up working in a laboratory or an outdoor construction site. Remember, nearly every mechanical device was created by a mechanical engineer so the possibilities for employment are virtually endless!

Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering : Introduction

    Aeronautical / Aerospace Engineering is one of the most challenging fields of engineering with a wide scope for growth. This field deals with the development of new technology in the field of aviation, space exploration and defence systems. It specialises in the designing, construction, development, testing, operation and maintenance of both commercial and military aircraft, spacecrafts and their components as well as satellites and missiles.
As Aerospace engineering involves design and manufacture of very high technology systems, the job requires manual, technical as well as mechanical aptitude. Aeronautical engineer's usually work in teams under the supervision of senior engineers, bringing together their skills and technical expertise. Though highly paid, the work is very demanding. An aeronautical engineer needs to be physically fit and fully dedicated to his work. One needs to be alert, have an eye for detail and should have a high level of mathematical precision to be successful.
The specialisations includes in areas like structural design, navigational guidance and control systems, instrumentation and communication or production methods or it can be in a particular product such as military aircrafts, passenger planes, helicopters, satellites, rockets etc. Engineers may work in areas like design, development, maintenance as well as in the managerial and teaching posts in institutes. They find a very good demand in airlines, aircraft manufacturing units, air turbine production plants or design development programmes for the aviation industry. Aerospace environment is sophisticated with rewarding career opportunities involving leading-edge technology.

Eligibility & Course Area


To be an aeronautical engineer one should have a graduate degree (B.E/B.Tech.) or at least a diploma in Aeronautics. The degree and postgraduate degree courses are offered by the engineering colleges and Institutes of Technology (IITs), and the diploma courses are available at polytechnics. The basic eligibility criteria for a BE / B.Tech is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics and must have a fairly high percentage of marks in the aggregate. One must also pass the qualifying exam JEE (Joint Entrance Exam) conducted by the IIT’s.
Selection : Selection to the graduate courses ( BE / B.Tech ) is based on merit i.e the marks secured in the final exams of 10+2 and through entrance exams. Entrance to the IIT’s is through ‘JEE’ (Joint Entrance Exam) and for other institutions through their own separate entrance exams and other state level and national level exams. Most of the institutes conducting engineering courses in Aeronautics consider JEE score as the qualifying grade.
There is also the Associate Membership Examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE), which enables working people in the private and public sector, or diploma holders to acquire a Bachelor’s engineering degree through distance education by studying the syllabus and appearing for the Associate membership examination of the Institute of Engineers (AMIE) conducted by ASI (‘The Aeronautical Society of India’). This degree is equivalent to aeronautical engineering degree. Those with a degree in electronics, mathematics or physics can also find opportunities in this area.
Some Institutes offer postgraduate (M Tech) and Doctoral (Ph D) programmes in Aeronautics. The Madras Institute of Technology offers a three year Graduate Programme in Aeronautical Engineering for B Sc students, subject to their having passed Maths and Physics at the graduation stage. The Indian Institute of Science (IIS), Bangalore has M Tech and Ph D programmes in aeronautics.
Duration : The duration is four years, ending with a degree recognised by the ministry of education, government of India. The diploma courses are of 2-3 years duration.
Personal Skills : Aeronautical engineers should have an eye for detail and be good at problem-solving. They need mathematical precision and design skills, computer skills, and the ability to communicate well. They also need good planning ability and a knack for working under pressure. An aeronautical engineer needs to be physically fit an may need to often work at great speed especially in checking and maintenance of aircrafts during turnarounds. They must have a normal colour vision.

Remuneration


Engineers in government organisations, are paid official scales while those in the private sector are paid according to the scales decided by the management of the company.
The approximate starting salaries in the government /public sectors such as HAL, NAL are Rs. 8,000 to Rs.10,000 (excluding other allowances). In the private sector, the scales are decided by the management of the company and are approximately Rs.8,000 to Rs.15,000 per month plus perks. Engineering graduates with management degrees get a starting salary of Rs.10,000 to Rs.40,000 per month plus perks. Entrepreneurs can earn above Rs.20,000/- per month. Airline professionals get fringe benefits of free travel for self and family also, apart from numerous other perks.

Institutes
 
Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur (Tamil Nadu)
Dr. M.G.R. Nagar, Krishnagiri , Hosur (Krishnagiri Dist.) - 635109
Agra College of Management and Technology (A.C.M.T.), New Delhi (Delhi)
D-14/148 Sector-3,Rohini Opposite Ayodhya Chowk Bus Stand , New Delhi (Delhi) - 110085
B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
Seethakathi Estate, GST Road, Vandalur , Chennai (Chennai Dist.) - 600048
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology (BIT), Erode (Tamil Nadu)
Alathukombai - Post, Sathyamangalam , Erode (Erode Dist.) - 638 401
Bharat Institute of Engineering and Technology (B.I.E.T.), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Manglapally,Ibrahimpatnam,Ranga Reddy , Hyderabad (Hyderabad Dist.) - 501510
C.M. Engineering College (C.M.E.C.), Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Malla Reddy Group Of Institutions, Maisammaguda,Dhulapally, KomPally, Medchal , Secunderabad (Rangareddy Dist.) - 500014
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
East Coast Road, Mamallapuram , Chennai (Chennai Dist.) - 603104
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu)
Trichy , Perambalur (Perambalur Dist.) - 621 212
Engineers Training Centre ( E.T.C), Thrissur (Kerala)
Plakkat Lane, Naikkanal , Thrissur (Thrissur Dist.) - 680001
Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Rai Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh)
Ratapur Crossing , Rai Bareilly (Rai Bareilly Dist.) - 229001
Flytech Aviation Academy, Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
1-8-303/33, Nagam, Towers, 3rd and 4th Floor, NTR, Circle, Minister Road , Secunderabad (Rangareddy Dist.) - 500003
Guru Gram Institute of Aeronautical Engineering and Technology, Nagpur (Maharashtra)
Royal Complex - 467 , Near Old Paradi Naka, Bhandara Road , Nagpur (Nagpur Dist.) - 440008
Guru Gram Institute of Aeronautical Engineering and Technology, Gurgaon (Haryana)
Laxman Vihar , M.L Complex, Dhanwapur Road, Opp. Sec 4, (NCR Delhi) , Gurgaon (Gurgaon Dist.) - 122001
Guru Nanak Engineering College, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Ibrahimpatnam, RR District. , Hyderabad (Hyderabad Dist.) - 501506


Thursday, December 1, 2011

Differences between Java and C++.

Introduction

This lesson introduces you to Java programming by presenting some of the similarities and differences between Java and C++.

Similarities and Differences


1.      Java does not support typedefs, defines, or a preprocessor. Without a preprocessor, there are no provisions for including header files.

2.      Since Java does not have a preprocessor there is no concept of #define macros or manifest constants. However, the declaration of named constants is supported in Java through use of the final keyword.

3.      Java does not support enums but, as mentioned above, does support named constants.

4.      Java supports classes, but does not support structures or unions.

5.      All stand-alone C++ programs require a function named main and can have numerous other functions, including both stand-alone functions and functions, which are members of a class. There are no stand-alone functions in Java. Instead, there are only functions that are members of a class, usually called methods. Global functions and global data are not allowed in Java.

6.      All classes in Java ultimately inherit from the Object class. This is significantly different from C++ where it is possible to create inheritance trees that are completely unrelated to one another.

7.      All function or method definitions in Java are contained within the class definition. To a C++ programmer, they may look like inline function definitions, but they aren't. Java doesn't allow the programmer to request that a function be made inline, at least not directly.

8.      Both C++ and Java support class (static) methods or functions that can be called without the requirement to instantiate an object of the class.

9.      The interface keyword in Java is used to create the equivalence of an abstract base class containing only method declarations and constants. No variable data members or method definitions are allowed. (True abstract base classes can also be created in Java.) The interface concept is not supported by C++.

10.  Java does not support multiple inheritance. To some extent, the interface feature provides the desirable features of multiple inheritance to a Java program without some of the underlying problems.

11.  While Java does not support multiple inheritance, single inheritance in Java is similar to C++, but the manner in which you implement inheritance differs significantly, especially with respect to the use of constructors in the inheritance chain.

12.  In addition to the access specifiers applied to individual members of a class, C++ allows you to provide an additional access specifier when inheriting from a class. This latter concept is not supported by Java.

13.  Java does not support the goto statement (but goto is a reserved word). However, it does support labeled break and continue statements, a feature not supported by C++. In certain restricted situations, labeled break and continue statements can be used where a goto statement might otherwise be used.

14.  Java does not support operator overloading.

15.  Java does not support automatic type conversions (except where guaranteed safe).

16.  Unlike C++, Java has a String type, and objects of this type are immutable (cannot be modified). Quoted strings are automatically converted into String objects. Java also has a StringBuffer type. Objects of this type can be modified, and a variety of string manipulation methods are provided.

17.  Unlike C++, Java provides true arrays as first-class objects. There is a length member, which tells you how big the array is. An exception is thrown if you attempt to access an array out of bounds. All arrays are instantiated in dynamic memory and assignment of one array to another is allowed. However, when you make such an assignment, you simply have two references to the same array. Changing the value of an element in the array using one of the references changes the value insofar as both references are concerned.

18.  Unlike C++, having two "pointers" or references to the same object in dynamic memory is not necessarily a problem (but it can result in somewhat confusing results). In Java, dynamic memory is reclaimed automatically, but is not reclaimed until all references to that memory become NULL or cease to exist. Therefore, unlike in C++, the allocated dynamic memory cannot become invalid for as long as it is being referenced by any reference variable.

19.  Java does not support pointers (at least it does not allow you to modify the address contained in a pointer or to perform pointer arithmetic). Much of the need for pointers was eliminated by providing types for arrays and strings. For example, the oft-used C++ declaration char* ptr needed to point to the first character in a C++ null-terminated "string" is not required in Java, because a string is a true object in Java.

20.  A class definition in Java looks similar to a class definition in C++, but there is no closing semicolon. Also forward reference declarations that are sometimes required in C++ are not required in Java.

21.  The scope resolution operator (::) required in C++ is not used in Java. The dot is used to construct all fully-qualified references. Also, since there are no pointers, the pointer operator (->) used in C++ is not required in Java.

22.  In C++, static data members and functions are called using the name of the class and the name of the static member connected by the scope resolution operator. In Java, the dot is used for this purpose.

23.  Like C++, Java has primitive types such as int, float, etc. Unlike C++, the size of each primitive type is the same regardless of the platform. There is no unsigned integer type in Java. Type checking and type requirements are much tighter in Java than in C++.

24.  Unlike C++, Java provides a true boolean type.

25.  Conditional expressions in Java must evaluate to boolean rather than to integer, as is the case in C++. Statements such as if(x+y)... are not allowed in Java because the conditional expression doesn't evaluate to a boolean.

26.  The char type in C++ is an 8-bit type that maps to the ASCII (or extended ASCII) character set. The char type in Java is a 16-bit type and uses the Unicode character set (the Unicode values from 0 through 127 match the ASCII character set). For information on the Unicode character set see http://www.stonehand.com/unicode.html.

27.  Unlike C++, the >> operator in Java is a "signed" right bit shift, inserting the sign bit into the vacated bit position. Java adds an operator that inserts zeros into the vacated bit positions.

28.  C++ allows the instantiation of variables or objects of all types either at compile time in static memory or at run time using dynamic memory. However, Java requires all variables of primitive types to be instantiated at compile time, and requires all objects to be instantiated in dynamic memory at runtime. Wrapper classes are provided for all primitive types except byte and short to allow them to be instantiated as objects in dynamic memory at runtime if needed.

29.  C++ requires that classes and functions be declared before they are used. This is not necessary in Java.

30.  The "namespace" issues prevalent in C++ are handled in Java by including everything in a class, and collecting classes into packages.

31.  C++ requires that you re-declare static data members outside the class. This is not required in Java.

32.  In C++, unless you specifically initialize variables of primitive types, they will contain garbage. Although local variables of primitive types can be initialized in the declaration, primitive data members of a class cannot be initialized in the class definition in C++.

33.  In Java, you can initialize primitive data members in the class definition. You can also initialize them in the constructor. If you fail to initialize them, they will be initialized to zero (or equivalent) automatically.

34.  Like C++, Java supports constructors that may be overloaded. As in C++, if you fail to provide a constructor, a default constructor will be provided for you. If you provide a constructor, the default constructor is not provided automatically.

35.  All objects in Java are passed by reference, eliminating the need for the copy constructor used in C++.

36.  (In reality, all parameters are passed by value in Java. However, passing a copy of a reference variable makes it possible for code in the receiving method to access the object referred to by the variable, and possibly to modify the contents of that object. However, code in the receiving method cannot cause the original reference variable to refer to a different object.)

37.  There are no destructors in Java. Unused memory is returned to the operating system by way of a garbage collector, which runs in a different thread from the main program. This leads to a whole host of subtle and extremely important differences between Java and C++.

38.  Like C++, Java allows you to overload functions. However, default arguments are not supported by Java.

39.  Unlike C++, Java does not support templates. Thus, there are no generic functions or classes.

40.  Unlike C++, several "data structure" classes are contained in the "standard" version of Java. More specifically, they are contained in the standard class library that is distributed with the Java Development Kit (JDK). For example, the standard version of Java provides the containers Vector and Hashtable that can be used to contain any object through recognition that any object is an object of type Object. However, to use these containers, you must perform the appropriate upcasting and downcasting, which may lead to efficiency problems.

41.  Multithreading is a standard feature of the Java language.

42.  Although Java uses the same keywords as C++ for access control: private, public, and protected, the interpretation of these keywords is significantly different between Java and C++.

43.  There is no virtual keyword in Java. All non-static methods always use dynamic binding, so the virtual keyword isn't needed for the same purpose that it is used in C++.

44.  Java provides the final keyword that can be used to specify that a method cannot be overridden and that it can be statically bound. (The compiler may elect to make it inline in this case.)

45.  The detailed implementation of the exception handling system in Java is significantly different from that in C++.

46.  Unlike C++, Java does not support operator overloading. However, the (+) and (+=) operators are automatically overloaded to concatenate strings, and to convert other types to string in the process.

47.  As in C++, Java applications can call functions written in another language. This is commonly referred to as native methods. However, applets cannot call native methods.

48.  Unlike C++, Java has built-in support for program documentation. Specially written comments can be automatically stripped out using a separate program named javadoc to produce program documentation.

49.  Generally Java is more robust than C++ due to the following:
  1. Object handles (references) are automatically initialized to null.
  2. Handles are checked before accessing, and exceptions are thrown in the event of problems.
  3. You cannot access an array out of bounds.
  4. Memory leaks are prevented by automatic garbage collection.